atmospheric temperatures, which in turn attribute to increased accumulation of carbon dioxide and other gaseous emissions within the atmosphere.
rainfall increases or decreases or rise in temperature as well aa the freaky tidal waves, floods and drought among others.
desertification, declining of soil fertility, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and species extinction, while the combined effects of deforestation, soil pollution and erosion accelerate the degradation of natural resources, which the productive land areas are rapidly declining, resulting to intensification of competition and conflicts over the availability of land resources.
contaminated through wash down of atmospheric pollutants through
rainfall, solubilization of natural stable salts and oxides of heavy metals by acidic rain water, which releases harmful heavy metals like lead and mercury into soil solution.
is probably the most serious of the challenges like dust in the air,
as witnessed during the harmattan season which some take for
granted as a normal geographical phenomenon.
thick cloudy haze, from which serious problems arise such as reduced
visibility which often affect transport systems and health problems
like respiratory diseases.